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Extracted, with permission, from Benjamin Dykes's translation of Liber Astronomiae


SEE ALSO:
Roots-being-God-freedom
Guido Bonatti on 4th House Elections
An Interview with Benjamin Dykes



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The life of Guido Bonatti by Benjamin Dykes





Bonatti's life spanned most of the 13th Century, a volatile and critical time in Italian politics. All of his employers were Ghibellines (working against the Papal authority and armies), combating the Guelphs (pro-Papal forces). All of his employers seem to have been excommunicated at one time or another. We do not have his year of birth or death, but he was probably born around 1207 and died sometime before 1296, which would have made him in his eighties when he died (see below). Dante has immortalized Bonatti by placing him in Hell: the eighth Circle, fourth Ring, the Fortune Tellers and Diviners. There, the damned souls who have tried to divine the future are placed with their heads turned completely around (facing the past, as it were), their eyes blinded with tears.

What we do know (or think we know) about his life comes from three types of sources: first, statements made by Bonatti himself; second, the records and annals of Florence and Forlė; third, a handful of questionable stories told about him and repeated by later writers. In what follows I will rely mostly on Boncompagni's 1851 work On the Life and Works of Guido Bonatti, Astrologer and Astronomer of the Thirteenth Century. Boncompagni conveniently includes Latin, Italian, and French citations from many sources, including the important 14th Century work of Fillipo Villani, and the names below largely reflect the material in his book. First I will describe something about Bonatti's personality and stories about him, then I will describe his employers, and finally I will construct a timeline of rather certain events in his life up until his death.

Bonatti is said to have been a hot-tempered man, and somewhat self-aggrandizing (as is also confirmed by statements in the Book of Astronomy). He is said to have owned property called the Campo della Quercia (perhaps near Forlė). A painting of him hangs in Florence, although Boncompagni (p. 90) does not state its location. He was also said to be a trickster, especially playing unspecified tricks on women, although this comment is made on the "back of a page" of a codex in Florence and Boncompagni (p. 135) is not clear on who wrote it or how it appears. Bonatti mentions his family only a couple of times: his father claimed to be 107 years old (see below for his father's profession), an uncle 120 years old; his mother claimed that a contemporary of hers had given birth to a cat; and he had at least one nephew, whose nativity is given in Tr. 9 (see Table of Figures). We learn nothing about his siblings.

There are also a number of stories about him, some undoubtedly invented. For example, a contemporary of Bonatti's, a Franciscan named Salimbene of Parma, claims that when a Franciscan named Hugo came into the town where Bonatti was at the time, Bonatti was so intimidated by Hugo's learning and preaching that he went into hiding. The excerpt from Salimbene in Boncompagni does not say what city this was in or even the year, but it is not very believable. Salimbene relates the story with some sense of triumph, noting that in normal circumstances Bonatti had disdain for the Franciscans-so the story seems to have a merely polemical origin. Besides, Bonatti himself enjoyed the patronage of counts, tyrants, and perhaps even the Emperor, and stood up to charlatans and bullies-what would he have to fear from a preacher passing through town?

Villani relates another story reported by a Dante scholar named Rambaldo in 1391. Rambaldo is describing what sort of physiognomy Scorpio signifies, and cites as evidence a trip allegedly made by Bonatti to Arabia! There, he says, Bonatti had seen an astrolabe of miraculous size, on which all the zodiacal signs were configured. In the sign of Scorpio was carved or placed the figure of an Ethiopian holding manure to his nose, to indicate that one born with Scorpio ascending will enjoy the smell of dung.[1] This story too seems false. If Bonatti had been to Arabia, he not only would have mentioned it, but would have had access to astrological manuscripts which he would have used in writing the Book of Astronomy. But Bonatti never mentions it, and there is no evidence in the Book of Astronomy that any of its source material relies on manuscripts not already translated into Latin and available in Italy. Also, it would likely have had to take place before about 1276, the date of the last event mentioned in the book. By that time Bonatti would have been in his sixties, an unlikely age at which to have taken such a trip (especially with the scene of the faltering Crusades having become so dangerous).

Another unlikely and unclear story deriving from Salimbene is that while both Bonatti and his later employer Count Guido da Montefeltro were in Forlė, Bonatti worked as a roofer or roof repairman. One authority, Trotti, says this is just a legend, and that it was begun by a man named Recanati. Recanati, who was writing about Villani, mentions the story as a way of describing how Bonatti could have met Piero della Vigna in Bologna (see below). Since Piero had grown up poor, Recanati's story tries to connect Bonatti, Bologna, Piero, and their obscure backgrounds. But Bonatti never actually says he knew Piero, and it would seem that the original story not only leaves out Montefeltro but takes place in another city.

Finally, another story of Rambaldo's but related by Boncompagni (pp. 130-33) describes an encounter designed to make Bonatti look bad. On a very clear day Montefeltro was on a plain outside Forlė, when a peasant approached and offered him some pears. Then the peasant said he wanted to hurry home before it rained, because there was sure to be great rainfall that day. Montefeltro called Bonatti to him (apparently Bonatti was there with him) to ask him for the forecast, and Bonatti said it would only rain moderately. But, going back to his study, he took out his astrolabe, made some calculations, and decided it would not rain at all. The peasant insisted it would rain. "How do you know?" asked Bonatti. The peasant explained that his donkey was shaking and pricking up its ears more than usual-which in his experience was always a sign of rain. And it would be a great rainfall, because the donkey's ears were turning around and rotating more than usual. Then the peasant left. Soon it began to rain so hard there was practically a flood. Distraught, Bonatti shouted out, "Who has deluded me? Who has confounded me?" The Latin text suggests that the Count created a new position for the peasant, that of Groom to the Great Master Astrologer (Agaso magno Magistro Astrologo), obviously so that the donkey could be used for weather prediction. The moral of the story is that even a jackass is better than an astrologer.

From these fanciful and polemical stories we move into the realm of pretty certain fact. Bonatti had three main employers, all powerful men, and he perhaps also was in the employ of Frederick II. In chronological order of employment, they are:

Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor. Frederick (b. December 26, 1194, d. December 13, 1250) was a towering figure in medieval history. A Hohenstaufen, he was the son of Emperor Henry VI and Constance, Queen of Sicily. Both of his parents died early and Pope Innocent III assumed responsibility for his guardianship. He was crowned Holy Roman Emperor in Rome in 1220. Frederick spent much of his time in Sicily or on Crusade, during which time his assets and kingdoms flourished: he was said to be a wise and intelligent ruler, a speaker of many languages, and his court was famous for encouraging the arts and sciences (including astrology). The famous astrologer Michael Scot was attached to his court, and is found next to Bonatti in Dante's Hell. Two episodes in Frederick's later life are mentioned by Bonatti: first, his betrayal in 1249 by his friend Pietro (or Piero) della Vigna, who either committed suicide or was executed after he was discovered embezzling and possibly plotting against the Emperor; second, the plot against him by close associates (encouraged by Pope Innocent IV) in 1245. Bonatti's description of this latter situation [2] seems to be the only reason for historians to assume Bonatti actually worked for Frederick in some capacity, but it rests on shaky foundations. First of all, although Bonatti claims to have foreseen the plot, he never actually says he warned Frederick or was even in a position to do so. He never describes situations in which he aided the Emperor. And, even though he mentions Michael Scot as a contemporary of his, he never expressly shows knowledge of Michael's works. For instance, Michael wrote a famous commentary on the Sphere of Sacrobosco, but Bonatti's knowledge of the same topics seems to come from an earlier translation of al-Farghani, whom he recommends to the reader. There is no evidence for his being in Frederick's employ, even though at least one authority (Gavinet) says that Bonatti was receiving an annual stipend from Frederick. Surely Bonatti, who loves relating the details of his consultations with local lords like Guido Novello, would have openly boasted about being hired by an Emperor.

Ezzelino da Romano III (April 25, 1194-October 7, 1259). Ezzelino was of German origin, an ally of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II against the Guelphs, and in 1236 became Frederick's son-in-law. He was the ruler of Verona several times over (as cities passed from one political party to another), and by 1238 ruled over many territories from the Mark of Treviso in eastern Italy up into northern Italian territory, either as the civil authority or as a commander on Frederick's behalf. He was excommunicated in 1254 by Pope Innocent IV, who launched a crusade against him (Ezzelino prevailed). In 1258-1259 he launched a series of battles against a number of opponents, and was captured near Bergamo. He died in prison on October 7, 1259. He is mentioned several times in the Book of Astronomy as a man of great cruelty, and Bonatti notes[3] that Ezzelino held the brother of one of his own astrologers (Salio) in prison, perhaps as leverage against Salio. Bonatti suggests that Ezzelino was an amateur astrologer, or at least disagreed with Salio about the latter's understanding of particular astrological concepts: perhaps Salio had been predicting failure but, like most tyrants, Ezzelino did not countenance disagreement (see the story about Ezzelino below[4]). Ezzelino is featured in Dante's Hell: the seventh Circle, first Ring, the Violent against Neighbors.

Count Guido Novello. Novello was a chief Ghibelline in Florence, but seems to have been thrown out twice. In 1260 Bonatti aided Novello and the Sienese against the Florentine Guelphs, who lost at the battle of Montaperti. Many of the Guelphs fled to Lucca, where Bonatti again helped Novello in two campaigns against them in 1261 (see below). In 1266 Novello returned to Florence in victory after the Ghibellines were reconstituted there, but was then ejected after a month. In 1283 Novello allied with Guido da Montefeltro, either during or after the siege of Forlė (see below).

Count Guido da Montefeltro. Montefeltro (c.1220-1298) led a successful Ghibelline battle in 1275 to become the captain of Forlė (where he worked with Bonatti). In 1281 he led a Ghibelline revolt against King Charles and Pope Martin IV, also attacking and defeating the Papal governor of Romagna (John of Eppe) at Forlė. The Papal forces proceeded to besiege Forlė in 1282-83, and while they did not take the city, they successfully suppressed the revolt. In 1286 Montefeltro accepted the Pope's authority, only to be excommunicated in 1288 for engaging in further Ghibelline activity and battles. Finally, apparently repenting of his former ways, he became a mendicant Franciscan monk in 1296-but could not help remaining involved in politics. He died in late 1298, and is found deep in Dante's Hell: the eighth Circle, eighth Ring, the Evil Counselors.

From here we can proceed to the details of Bonatti's life. His birth year is unknown, but definitely in the early 1200s. Although Bonatti said he was "from" or "of" the town of Forlė near Ravenna, there is some dispute over his city of origin. Some authorities have said he was really from Florence, and Boncompagni finally sides with those who insist he was really from a tiny town called Cascia, a little village about 35 KM southeast of Florence in the Val d'Arno.[5] Modern Reggello, a nearby and larger town, is known for its olive oil, and the immediate area was later the home of the 15th Century painter Masaccio, who influenced Michelangelo.

What could explain the differing accounts of his birthplace? According to a number of medieval accounts and later writers, while Bonatti was from the Florence area, he was later mistreated by the Florentines and exiled, and became so angry that he claimed he was from Forlė. Indeed, as we shall see below, in 1260-61 he helped Novello in several battles against the Florentines, both in Florence and in their refuges in and near Lucca. Indirect support for his being from the area of Florence is found in the fact that his father was a notary for the Archbishops of Florence: we know this because we have log books with his father's entries, recording land sales and such, including from the years of 1217 to 1221. Of course, it is possible that while still a child in Forlė, his father left for Florence for extended periods. But the Bonatti family was said to be very old and established: would it have been so difficult to get a job in Forlė, that his father would have had to travel so far to find notary work?

Another possibility is that while he was from Cascia, the family moved from Florence after 1221 to Forlė, since in 1223 we find Bonatti in Ravenna (near Forlė), where he says he saw a man named Richard, who passed himself off as a roughly 400-year-old man who had been born in the time of Charlemagne. At this time Bonatti must have been young but old enough to remember the event-say, fifteen?

Bonatti is said to have studied in Bologna, and indeed he must have been either studying there, or teaching, or perhaps involved in politics, as he says he met the famous John of Vicenza in Bologna. John was a leader of a peace movement seeking to reduce violence, and he entered Bologna in May of 1233. On May 14, there was a great procession featuring him, and on May 16 there was claimed a miracle in which a cross appeared on his forehead. On May 23, John and some other figures reburied a local saint in a decorated tomb, and on May 28 he had left. Although John had only been in Bologna a few weeks, his presence was electrifying to the people-but not to Bonatti. In his own version of events, Bonatti says he himself was criticized for being the only person to think John was a charlatan: John claimed to have raised people from the dead, to heal miraculously and to speak to Jesus Christ and the Virgin Mary whenever he wanted. Moreover, John went around with armed thugs as protection, who beat anyone getting too close (without healing their wounds afterwards).

It was perhaps at this time that Bonatti was a professor of judicial astrology, although the details of this are not clear. Bonatti does claim that John of Vicenza criticized astrology: if then Bonatti was someone of note, then perhaps there was a personal confrontation between them.

In 1245, Bonatti was in Forlė, and claims that while Frederick II was in Grosseto (in southern Tuscany), he alone among the astrologers foresaw a conspiracy against the Emperor. In fact the conspiracy existed, and was found out (see above). But Bonatti does not actually say he informed the Emperor. If Frederick had a number of astrologers on stipend, then perhaps there was a peer review process in which Bonatti's interpretation was rejected by the other astrologers. Or perhaps he was not in Frederick's employ at all, and simply foresaw the conspiracy independently.

In 1257, we again find Bonatti in Forli, engaged with a local tyrant. According to Bonatti, a man named Simon Mestaguerra had taken over the city. While the populace lived in fear of him, only Bonatti saw the truth about him and resisted him. Bonatti does not say how he resisted such a tyrant, but in any event Mestaguerra was expelled after about three years, in 1257.

Boncompagni believes that it was most likely in 1258 that Bonatti was forced to leave Florence, because people from the countryside (who had been winning in the latest Guelph-Ghibelline struggles) treated him badly. It was also at this time that a Ghibelline conspiracy headed by the Uberti family was discovered by the Florentine Guelphs, so the Ghibellines were ejected from the city. If true, then it is possible that Bonatti's alleged anger at the Florentines (or the Florentine Guelphs) arose from these events, prompting him to renounce his Florentine or Cascian origins and claim to be from Forlė. We have seen that Bonatti had already been in Forlė, so he already had connections there. Boncompagni does not explain why Bonatti was even in Florence, but perhaps (since Bonatti does not say otherwise) he felt he had to leave Forlė during the tyranny of Simon Mestaguerra. If so, then he might have gone to Florence, only to be rejected again.

At any rate, in 1259 Bonatti was in a new city, Brescia, working (along with other astrologers) for Ezzelino da Romano, then the governor of Padua. According to Iacopo Malvezzi, a Brescian writer of the 15th Century, Ezzelino had a bad dream in February, whose meaning he sought by consulting several astrologers and magicians living there at the time: Bonatti, Salio the Canon of Padua (also an astrologer), Riprandinus of Verona, and Paul the Saracen of Brescia (said to have had a wild and flowing beard), who originated from "Baldach." When they arrived at Ezzelino's palace, he related the dream and asked what it portended. A day later they returned, telling Ezzelino he had a bright future and would soon be given all of Lombardy. But not long afterwards the interpretation proved to be false, and Malvezzi suggests that either fear or hatred of Ezzelino had led Bonatti and the others to avoid telling him the truth. There is support for this version of events in the Book of Astronomy, when Bonatti mentions that Salio used to give Ezzelino more flattering responses out of fear (see above). Bonatti omits to say whether he himself might have done likewise, but he does make a coy allusion to the event in Tr. 5, the 141st Consideration: there, Bonatti says Ezzelino was captured "when it seemed impossible that he could be oppressed." Whatever the truth of the astrologers' behavior on that day, Ezzelino died only months after the consultation, defeated and in prison, on September 27, 1259.

Less than a year after Ezzelino's death, Bonatti took up work with Guido Novello, who was heavily involved in Ghibelline politics in Florence. This was a particularly active time in Bonatti's career, and several statements and charts given in the Book of Astronomy show how closely he followed Novello's own moves. In 1260, Novello, Bonatti, and a number of other Ghibellines were thrown out of Florence by the dominant Guelphs. Novello, retreating to nearby Siena, decided to take up arms with the Sienese against the Florentines (or to defend himself as they pursued him). The battle took place on September 4, 1260, on the hill of Montaperti near Siena on the Arbia river. Although the Sienese were greatly outnumbered,[6] they massacred the Florentine Guelphs. Bonatti claims to have cast (or helped cast) both the horary chart showing they would win, and the election for the battle itself.

The victory at Montaperti led many Guelph families in Florence to flee to other friendly cities, and Novello was promptly chosen as the new authority in Florence. Bonatti's fortune rose suddenly as well: in a Florentine record of high-level negotiations on November 22, Bonatti is listed both as a witness (and is set apart from the names of the local participants) and as the astrologer of Florence.

A problem arises from the fact that Bonatti is listed as being from Forlė in the above document. For if Bonatti had originally been from Florence or Cascia, and especially if his father had worked for years for the Archbishop and had been from the area, and if he had only changed the story of his origins a couple of years before, then how could anyone present be fooled by his new Forlė story? Again we have the problem of reconciling Bonatti's own story with that of contemporaries'. Perhaps Bonatti was in fact from Forlė, and his father's job in Florence took him away from the family for long periods of time. Another possibility is that Bonatti was from Cascia and, being embarrassed by his humble origins, decided to claim Forlė as his birthplace (since local Florentines would have known he was not from Florence itself). Yet another possibility (however more remote) is that he had been granted citizenship in Forlė some time before, perhaps as a condition of his being politically involved. We may never know.

Many of the Florentine Guelphs fleeing the city after Montaperti went westward to the city of Lucca. Novello, now made the civil authority or podestā in Florence for two years, began to pursue them. Bonatti presents us with two horary charts he cast as part of the actions against the Guelphs in and around Lucca:[7]

The first chart [8] is of a question by Novello as to whether he would win a battle against the city of Lucca. Readers may see Bonatti's version of the chart in the text, along with his prediction. After deciding it was not worth continuing the attack, Novello turned his attention to another castle occupied by Luccans, which he had begun to besiege at that time.

The second chart[9] is cast for a month after the first one, and concerns the besieged castle. Bonatti does not name the castle and only says it was the "castle of a company of Luccans", but Tiraboschi[10] believes it was the castle of Fucecchio, a strategically-placed fortress in Fucecchio about 44 KM from Florence.[11] Comparing charts for each location shows no decisive difference between them, so there is no way to tell where Novello and Bonatti were at the time. The reader will see Bonatti's own version of the chart and his prediction in the text. After consulting Bonatti, Novello decided to halt the besiegement.

In 1261, Bonatti reports seeing a comet around the time of Pope Alexander IV's death. Bonatti does not tell us whether he predicted the death, but he believes that the comet heralded the death of a number of key players in the Italian struggles of the time.[12] At this time I do not know the identity of the comet.

In 1264 Bonatti was back in Forlė, assisting in an agreement between Philip the Archbishop of Ravenna on the one side, and some men from Forli on the other. Boncompagni's excerpt of this story by Rossi does not explain what was decided or why.

In 1267 Bonatti reports that a man passing himself off as John Buttadaeus (a legendary figure who had lived from the time of Christ), had passed through Forli.[13]

Around this time Bonatti must have changed employers from Novello to Montefeltro, as Novello no longer appears in the records but we hear more about Montefeltro. Although we do not have much information on their relationship, Villani reports that when Montefeltro was preparing military actions he had Bonatti elect the times for performing the stages of preparation. Bonatti used to ascend the bell tower of the San Mercuriale in Forlė, and ring the bell for Montefeltro to do such things as put on his armor, get on his horse, raise flags, and so on. I note that Bonatti speaks of electing times for doing just such things in Tr. 7, so he was definitely practicing what he preached.

It seems that in 1276 or 1277 Bonatti helped either Novello (or more likely Montefeltro) in the battle of Valbona.[14] The Chronicles of Forlė mention a Lucius de Valbona, and that a Burgum Castri Civitellae was occupied; then apparently the defenders and attackers moved to Valbona on November 9th. Bonatti gives no details apart from the fact that "the Ascendant [of the electional figure] was Taurus, and Mars was in the Ascendant." I take this to mean that Mars was in Taurus, which would place the battle in March or April, 1276. This is the last confirmable date from the Book of Astronomy, which means the final touches must have been put on the book sometime afterwards.

According to Boncompagni's report of a Leone Cobelli, a battle took place in Forlė between Montefeltro and a general of Pope Martin IV (Giovanni d'Appia). Bonatti was consulted, and he said that while Montefeltro would win, he would be injured in battle. Apparently Montefeltro's confidence in Bonatti was so great that he published reports of his victory before the battle took place. It is claimed Bonatti himself wrote about this later (and allegedly is recorded in the Archivio Storico Italiano), but Bonatti never mentions it.

At this point the record breaks off except for a spurious story about Bonatti's last years, and an account of his death. A traditional story claims that in his old age, Bonatti repented of his past use of astrology and became a mendicant Franciscan; some accounts also combine this story with another one about Montefeltro likewise repenting of his opposition to the Pope and becoming a mendicant. But it seems Bonatti's inclusion in the story is a mistake, due in part to the fact that Villani's account mentions a "Guido" several times, but the text is not clear on which Guido was meant. According to Tiraboschi, only Montefeltro entered the Order, and the inclusion of Bonatti originates only two centuries later-when it is promptly repeated by subsequent writers. According to Landino and other sources, Bonatti died before Montefeltro, and then Montefeltro, despairing of being able to hold on to his power, accepted the Pope's authority and became a monk.

It seems, then, that Bonatti died after 1281 (if he was at the siege of Forlė) but before late 1296. But how did he die? According to Muratori, upon returning from a study trip to Paris and other Italian cities, he was beset by robbers in or near Casena and murdered on the road, his body left there. Although being robbed and killed is not implausible, this story must be accepted with caution, as it includes the statement that Bonatti went to Paris. Muratori claims that according the Annals of Forlė Bonatti went to Paris and taught astrology there, gaining an international reputation. Bonatti never mentions this, so the only other alternative is that he taught in Paris after 1276 (the last date in the book), when he was in his seventies. So far as I know, no one has corroborated this story using Parisian sources.

From all of this information I think we can establish that Bonatti was in his eighties when he died. If we assume he was a young teenager (say, 15) in 1223 when he saw Richard in Ravenna, then he would have been born about 1207. If we assume he died just before Montefeltro became a mendicant (1296), then Bonatti was approximately 89 at his death.






Notes & References:
  1 ] Bonatti does mention that those with Ascendants ruled by malefics may enjoy odors like this (Tr. 5, the 127th Consideration).
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  2 ] See Tr. 5, the 58th Consideration.
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  3 ] See Tr. 3, Part 2, Ch. 14, and the Index.
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  4 ] See also Tr. 7, Part 2, the 9th House, Ch. 2.
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  5 ] Cascia is small enough that it does not appear on standard astrological software. But it is a tiny distance from Reggello, a slightly bigger town (43šN41', 11šE32').
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  6 ] Bonatti describes the army in Tr. 7, Part 1, Ch. 5.
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  7 ] I note that in Bonatti's sections on predicting the length of someone's reign, he describes how to track the querent's status from year to year. It is possible that he learned or devised these techniques while working for Ezzelino or Novello.
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  8 ] Tr. 6, Part 2, the 7th House, Ch. 28. Using Bonatti's data, the chart must have been cast at 11:51 AM LAT, on September 12, 1261 JC. The coordinates for Lucca are 10šE29', 43šN50. All positions in my own recast chart are very close to Bonatti's, except for the cadent houses, which are off by about a degree.
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  9 ] Described in the same Treatise as the first, but in Ch. 29.
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  10 ] See Boncompagni, p. 36.
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  11 ] The coordinates for Fucecchio are 10šE48, 43šN44. I have calculated the chart to be cast with a few minutes of 9:52 AM LAT, on October 11, 1261 JC.
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  12 ] See Tr. 8, Ch. 104.
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  13 ] See Tr. 5, the 141st Consideration.
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  14 ] Mentioned briefly in Tr. 6, Part 2, the 7th House, Ch. 21.
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Benjamin Dykes received his PhD in Philosophy from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He has seven years' experience as a college instructor, concentrating on the ancient and medieval philosophy that informs much ancient and medieval astrology, and many years' experience in ritual practice in the Western Mystery Tradition, including the Golden Dawn, Wicca, and Thelema.

Since earning his Diploma of Medieval Astrology studying with Robert Zoller, Ben has been active in translating and publishing works that focus upon medieval astrological techniques. His own text, Using Medieval Astrology is available through his website at www.bendykes.com. He has also recently translated Abu Mashar's Flowers of Astrology, as well as the eagerly anticipated Book of Astronomy by Guido Bonatti, from which this article is extracted. Upcoming works include selected works in mundane, horary, and natal astrology by Masha'allah, Sahl ibn Bishr's Introduction, 50 Judgments, Questions, Elections, Prediction and Al-Kindi's The Forty Chapters.

© Benjamin Dykes, 2007.


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