skyscript.co.uk
   

home articles forum events
glossary horary quiz consultations links more

Read this before using the forum
Register
FAQ
Search
View memberlist
View/edit your user profile
Log in to check your private messages
Log in
Recent additions:
Can assassinations be prevented? by Elsbeth Ebertin
translated by Jenn Zahrt PhD
A Guide to Interpreting The Great American Eclipse
by Wade Caves
The Astrology of Depression
by Judith Hill
Understanding the mean conjunctions of the Jupiter-Saturn cycle
by Benjamin Dykes
Understanding the zodiac: and why there really ARE 12 signs of the zodiac, not 13
by Deborah Houlding

Skyscript Astrology Forum

The Four Maharajahs

 
Post new topic   Reply to topic    Forum Index -> Indian and Asian astrology
View previous topic :: View next topic  
Author Message
Mark
Moderator


Joined: 30 Sep 2005
Posts: 4924
Location: Edinburgh, Scotland

Posted: Mon Apr 14, 2014 3:56 pm    Post subject: The Four Maharajahs Reply with quote

One of my personal research topics is astrological geography.

I am studying this topic throughout the astrological tradition from the Mesopotamian tradition right up to the modern era.

I was recently, reading about the Babylonian notion of the four winds tied into the planetary rulers for the four directions. Each of the four winds was linked to a particular planet and triplicity. These single planetary rulers of the four winds seem to be the origin of the dignity of triplicity rulership in hellenistic astrology.

I have read one author describing the so called Four Maharajas in Indian astrology which appear to rule the cardinal points. It was suggested this concept mirrored the Mesopotamian notion of the planetary rulers of the four winds. However, I have been unable to find out anything further on this topic so far.

Can anyone assist me on this?

Thanks

Mark
_________________
‘’As thou conversest with the heavens, so instruct and inform thy minde according to the image of Divinity…’’ William Lilly
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Send e-mail
Kenneth Johnson



Joined: 12 Aug 2012
Posts: 132
Location: San Luis Obispo, CA

Posted: Mon Apr 14, 2014 4:44 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Did the source state which planets ruled which of the Four Maharajahs?
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message
Mark
Moderator


Joined: 30 Sep 2005
Posts: 4924
Location: Edinburgh, Scotland

Posted: Mon Apr 14, 2014 5:20 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Kenneth Johnson wrote:
Quote:
Did the source state which planets ruled which of the Four Maharajahs?


No. But if its like the Babylonian system it would exclude the luminaries. The planets would be Jupiter, Venus, Mars and Saturn. Mercury sometimes is mentioned too with Saturn.

Mark
_________________
‘’As thou conversest with the heavens, so instruct and inform thy minde according to the image of Divinity…’’ William Lilly
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Send e-mail
pankajdubey



Joined: 17 Nov 2006
Posts: 1215
Location: Delhi

Posted: Tue Apr 15, 2014 2:53 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

I thought there were 8 dikpals in hinduism but Chaturmaharaja(four kings)
is mentioned here.

http://www.thewalt.de/lokapala/lokap_engl.htm#e149

Isn't this four direction lord a buddhist influence ?

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guardians_of_the_directions

PD
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message
Kenneth Johnson



Joined: 12 Aug 2012
Posts: 132
Location: San Luis Obispo, CA

Posted: Tue Apr 15, 2014 5:08 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

There are several systems coalescing here. Dikpala (which is a Prakrit language, with digbala being the classical Sanskrit equivalent) means "directional power." There are eight directions in classical Hindu cosmology, the cardinals and inter-cardinals. The guardian deities are as given in the article that Pankajdubey has linked. These 8 directions correspond to the seven astrological planets plus Rahu, the north node of the Moon. They appear as early as the Mahabharata and also constitute the foundation of Vastu Shastra (Hindu feng-shui). The cosmology was adopted by the Buddhists as well.

There is also an astrological doctrine called digbala, which makes use of only the four cardinal directions as exemplified in the four angular houses. Mercury and Jupiter have digbala or directional power in the Asc, Moon and Venus in the IC, Sun and Mars at the MC, and Saturn at the Dsc.
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message
pankajdubey



Joined: 17 Nov 2006
Posts: 1215
Location: Delhi

Posted: Tue Apr 15, 2014 9:18 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

If dikpaala is prakrit then sanskrit should be dikpati or lokapaala:

लोकपाल/ लोक--पाल m. a world-protector , guardian of the -wworld , regent of a quarter of the -wworld (the लोक-पालs are sometimes regarded as the guardian deities of different orders of beings , but more commonly of the four cardinal and four intermediate points of the -wworld , viz. accord. to Mn. v , 96 , 1. इन्द्र, of the East ; 2. अग्नि, of South-east ; 3. यम, of South ; 4. सूर्य, of South-west ; 5. वरुण, of West ; 6. पवनor वायु, of North-west ; 7. कुबेर, of North ; 8. सोमor चन्द्रof North-east ; others substitute निर्-ऋतिfor 4 and ईशानीor पृथिवीfor 8 ; according to Dharmas. the Buddhists enumerate 4 or 8 or 10 or 14 लोक-पालs) S3Br.
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message
Martin Gansten
Moderator


Joined: 05 Jul 2008
Posts: 1255
Location: Malmö, Sweden

Posted: Wed Apr 16, 2014 7:10 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

I confess I'd never heard of the four mahārājas, so I can't help in that regard. But dikpāla and digbala are both perfectly good Sanskrit, the former meaning 'guardian of direction' and the latter, 'strength of direction'. The dikpālas are typically eight (ruling the cardinal and intermediate directions), and are so well-established that the most common names for many of the directions are the ones derived from the dikpālas (e.g., āgneyī for the south-east, from Agni).
_________________
http://www.martingansten.com
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Send e-mail
Kenneth Johnson



Joined: 12 Aug 2012
Posts: 132
Location: San Luis Obispo, CA

Posted: Thu Apr 17, 2014 2:17 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Thanks, Martin, of course I was thinking bala for "power."
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message
Mark
Moderator


Joined: 30 Sep 2005
Posts: 4924
Location: Edinburgh, Scotland

Posted: Fri Jun 06, 2014 12:07 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Thanks to everyone for contributing here.

I found the links provided by Pankajdubey especially useful as they opened up new areas of research for me. I am also grateful to Kenneth for mentioning the Hindu tradition of directionology known as Vastu Shastras as this was new information for me.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vastu_shastra

It seems the origin of this idea this relates to the Buddhist notion of the four great kings or guardians (caturmaharajika) who abide on the four sides of Mount Meru and serve as protectors of the world against the Asuras.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Four_Heavenly_Kings

It is interesting whether this idea is actually.pre-Buddhist. The cosmology associated with Mount Meru appears to be common to Vedic, Jain and Buddhist sources.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mount_Meru

Moreover, in the Persian Avestan texts like the Bundahishn we still find references to the four Chieftans or Leaders often associated with stars and constellations connected to the four directions.

In Ancient China we find the sky divided into four so called great super constellations each associated with a particular direction. This idea seems to date back to the neolithic. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Four_Symbols_(Chinese_constellation)

It seems very likely that the Hindu Guardians of the eight cardinal directions called the Lokapālas or Ashta Dikpalakas are derived from a more basic four fold directionology.

We see the same trend in Greek thought where the four wind gods called the Anemoi are linked to the cardinal directions and generated further sub divisions.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anemoi

In his Tetrabiblos 1:10 Claudius Ptolemy links the four cardinal directions to these four winds. In book II:3 Ptolemy divides the world into four quarters and links countries under the planetary rulership of the triplicities in a tradition directly stemming back to the four winds of Babylonian astrology.
_________________
‘’As thou conversest with the heavens, so instruct and inform thy minde according to the image of Divinity…’’ William Lilly
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Send e-mail
Display posts from previous:   
Post new topic   Reply to topic    Forum Index -> Indian and Asian astrology All times are GMT
Page 1 of 1

 
Jump to:  
You cannot post new topics in this forum
You cannot reply to topics in this forum
You cannot edit your posts in this forum
You cannot delete your posts in this forum
You cannot vote in polls in this forum
. Powered by phpBB © 2001, 2005 phpBB Group

       
Contact Deborah Houlding  | terms and conditions  
All rights on all text and images reserved. Reproduction by any means is not permitted without the express
agreement of Deborah Houlding or in the case of articles by guest astrologers, the copyright owner indictated