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The nature of Mars is fiery, hot, dry, choleric, of a bitter taste. And he signifies youth and strength and the sharpness of the mind, also heats and fires and burning up, and everything which happens abruptly. And a king of power and cleverness, and the commands of leaders, and the army, and the companions of the king, and over injustice and subjugation, and war, and killing and fighting, and courage, and endurance, and the lust for glory and having his name be remembered, and being raised up high, and the instruments of war, and compatriots mobilized for wars, and an eagerness for wrongs and sowing discord, and drinking parties, and things breaking up, and fighting wars, and robberies and digging up of walls on account of stealing, and the cutting of roads and courage and a tendency to anger, and treating the unlawful as being lawful. And he signifies martyrdoms and being fettered, also whipping and prisons and restrictions, fugitives and defection, captivity and prisoners, fear, lawsuits, injustice, a tendency to anger, and violence, and recklessness, and harshness, and coarseness of emotion, and capacity and persistence, and a scarcity of foresight and quickness in matters and having preconceptions, bad eloquence and a ferocity of speech, foulness of words and the lack of self-control in the tongue. And the showing of esteem and friendship, and taking joy in beauty, economy of speech, strategem, regret in the promptness of [his] responses. And a scarcity of piety, and a scarcity of loyalty, and an abundance of lying and whispering, and immorality and wickedness, and the swearing of false oaths, and deception and double-dealing, and the committing of offenses and the scarcity of good, and the destruction of the good, and a multitude of worries in matters, and the instability or changing of counsel from condition to condition, and the quickness of [its] turning back. And a scarcity of modesty, also a multitude of labor and vexation. And foreign journeys and the condition of solitary people, and bad companionship. And fornication and the foulness of sexual intercourse, joking around, being energetic. And he signifies the menstruation of women, also divorce and loss in a conception, and the cutting of the child in the womb and premature births. And he signifies middle brothers and the managers of beasts and veterinary medicine, and the shepherds of sheep and the curing of wounds, and masteries of iron and its work. And the circumcisions of boys and the digging up of tombs and the plundering of the dead.
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[From Gr. Intr. VII.9.1456-88]

Benjamin's Dykes' published work also contains introductions and footnoted annotations. For a pdf extract of material from various sections of his text see here.

About the author:
Benjamin N. Dykes PhD received his PhD in Philosophy from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He has eight years' experience as a college instructor, concentrating on the ancient and medieval philosophy that informs much ancient and medieval astrology, and many years' experience in ritual practice in the Western Mystery Tradition, including the Golden Dawn, Wicca, and Thelema.

Since earning his Diploma of Medieval Astrology studying with Robert Zoller, Ben has been active in translating and publishing works that focus upon medieval astrological techniques. His own text, Using Medieval Astrology is available through his website at In additional to Introductions to Astrology: Abu Ma'Shar & Al-Qabisi Ben has also recently translated three volumes on Persian Nativities, The Book of Astronomy by Guido Bonatti and The Works of Sahl and Masha'allah.

© The article made available on this page is copyrighted to Benjamin Dykes and is offered here for private, non-commercial use. Permission must be sought for reproduction. Published online June 2011.

Also by Ben Dykes:

Extracts from Persian Nativities Vols. I, II & III
MASHA’ALLAH: What is reception?
Translation of Guido Bonatti's treatise on 4th House Elections
Happiness in Medieval Astrology
An Interview with Benjamin Dykes