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The nature of the Sun is hot, dry. He signifies the life-giving soul, and light and splendor, reason and intellect and knowledge and middle age. He even signifies the king and princes and generals, nobles and magnates, and the assembling of men. Strength, too, and victory and fame, beauty and greatness and the loftiness of the mind, and pride and good commendations, and the appetite for a kingdom and assets, and the greatness of esteem for gold. And he signifies a multitude of speaking and the valuing of cleanliness. And he impedes beyond measure one who is conjoined to him or approaches him. For he who was closer to him in place will be more full of labor than all men, and by how much more one will be elongated from him, he will be [that much] more fortunate. For he who is approaching [the Sun] will leave no memory, nor will a trace of him appear. He puts in order and destroys, profits and impedes, makes fortunate and unfortunate, sometimes raises up, sometimes puts down. And he signifies the matter of religion and the hereafter, also judges and the wise, fathers and middle brothers, and the crowd, and yellow bile: he is joined to men and [also] criticizes them, he provides every thing that [someone] asks for, is strong for revenge, punishing rebels and evildoers.
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[From Gr. Intr. VII.9.1490-1508]

Benjamin's Dykes' published work also contains introductions and footnoted annotations. For a pdf extract of material from various sections of his text see here.

About the author:
Benjamin N. Dykes PhD received his PhD in Philosophy from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He has eight years' experience as a college instructor, concentrating on the ancient and medieval philosophy that informs much ancient and medieval astrology, and many years' experience in ritual practice in the Western Mystery Tradition, including the Golden Dawn, Wicca, and Thelema.

Since earning his Diploma of Medieval Astrology studying with Robert Zoller, Ben has been active in translating and publishing works that focus upon medieval astrological techniques. His own text, Using Medieval Astrology is available through his website at In additional to Introductions to Astrology: Abu Ma'Shar & Al-Qabisi Ben has also recently translated three volumes on Persian Nativities, The Book of Astronomy by Guido Bonatti and The Works of Sahl and Masha'allah.

© The article made available on this page is copyrighted to Benjamin Dykes and is offered here for private, non-commercial use. Permission must be sought for reproduction. Published online June 2011.

Also by Ben Dykes:

Extracts from Persian Nativities Vols. I, II & III
MASHA’ALLAH: What is reception?
Translation of Guido Bonatti's treatise on 4th House Elections
Happiness in Medieval Astrology
An Interview with Benjamin Dykes