Engraving by C. Lasinio after Raphael, 1516 (source: Welcome Library)

Classical significations
of the Sun

Valens | Firmicus | Abu Mashar

More on the Sun

In a nativity the all-seeing sun, nature’s fire and intellectual light, the organ of mental perception, indicates kingship, rule, intellect, intelligence, beauty, motion, loftiness of fortune, the ordinance of the gods, judgement, public reputation, action, authority over the masses, the father, the master, friendship , noble personages, honors consisting of pictures, statues, and garlands, high priesthoods, one’s country other places. Of the parts of the body, the sun rules the head; of the sense organs, it rules the right eye; of the trunk, it rules the heart; of the spiritual (i.e. the perceptive) faculties, the nerves. Of materials, it rules gold; of fruits, it rules wheat and barley. It is of the day sect, yellowish, bitter in taste.

Translation by Mark Riley, (informally published in 2010, based on a preliminary translation made in the 1990s) Anthologies, I.I

The Sun is by nature fiery, hot and dry, yet wonderfully tempered, whence he owns the middle of the habitable zone; and he signifies the reconciliation of people, which brings the greatest honour; ambitious reputation; craving for gold and honours; desired vindication on enemies; courage of soul and body; honesty; grandeur, victory, perspicuous elegance, and incredible prospects amongst all that seems to belong to the height of royalty. He also signifies kings and rulers, those who are not savage, nor stubborn, nor unfair, but just, approachable, easy to deal with, gentle; honourable with every kind of virtue, though with a little spirit of pride, and sometimes puffed up. He signifies also grave eloquence, mature counsel, strict judgment, and splendid and noble action in anything; likewise, all splendour, brightness, and royal pomp. But of the parts of the body, he owns the head of every living being, the spirit, and the right eye.

Translation by Valerie Roebuck, (published in the Skyscript Newsletter, issue 5, 2022, p.10), based on the 1533 Aldine Latin translation.

The nature of the Sun is hot, dry. He signifies the life-giving soul, and light and splendor, reason and intellect and knowledge and middle age. He even signifies the king and princes and generals, nobles and magnates, and the assembling of men. Strength, too, and victory and fame, beauty and greatness and the loftiness of the mind, and pride and good commendations, and the appetite for a kingdom and assets, and the greatness of esteem for gold. And he signifies a multitude of speaking and the valuing of cleanliness. And he impedes beyond measure one who is conjoined to him or approaches him. For he who was closer to him in place will be more full of labor than all men, and by how much more one will be elongated from him, he will be [that much] more fortunate. For he who is approaching [the Sun] will leave no memory, nor will a trace of him appear. He puts in order and destroys, profits and impedes, makes fortunate and unfortunate, sometimes raises up, sometimes puts down. And he signifies the matter of religion and the hereafter, also judges and the wise, fathers and middle brothers, and the crowd, and yellow bile: he is joined to men and [also] criticizes them, he provides every thing that [someone] asks for, is strong for revenge, punishing rebels and evildoers.

[From Gr. Intr. VII.9.1490-1508] Translation by Benjamin Dykes, (extracted from Introductions to Traditional Astrology: Abu Ma'shar & al-Qabisi (2010).
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